||Alternative Minimum Tax ("AMT" Or "Minimum Tax"). A separate tax calculation in which a taxpayer must pay the higher of its regular tax or amt liability. The corporate amt rate, although lower than the regular tax rate, is applied to a different, typically higher, taxable income than for regular taxes. This form of tax makes it more difficult to avoid paying "fair share" of tax through the use of certain regular tax benefits, which are known as "tax preference items" or "adjustment items".
Bargain Purchase Option. An option allowing the lessee to purchase the leased asset at the end of the lease term for a price that is fixed substantially below the expected "fair market value", such that, at the inception of the lease, purchase appears to be reasonably assured.
Bargain Renewal Option. A lease provision allowing the lessee to extend the lease for an additional term with payments substantially lower than the fair value of the asset, such that exercise of the option appears, at the inception of the lease, to be reasonably assured.
Call Option. Another term for a purchase or a renewal option, that is exercisable at the discretion of the lessee, not the lessor.
Capital Lease. Sometimes called financial lease or nontax lease. It is a lease that from the financial reporting standpoint has the characteristics of a purchase agreement, that meets at least one of the criteria outlined in paragraph 7 of FASB 13. A capital lease must be shown as an asset and a related obligation on the balance sheet of the lessee.
Certificate Of Delivery And Acceptance (D&A). A document signed by the lessee to confirm the leased asset has been delivered and is acceptable. In most cases, the lease term commences once this document has been signed.
Conditional Sales Contract. An agreement for the purchase of an asset in which the lessee is treated as the owner of the asset for federal income purposes, therefore entitled to the tax benefits of ownership, such as depreciation.
Direct Financing Lease. A lessor capital lease that does not give rise to manufacturers or dealers profit (or loss) to the lessor.
Discounted Cash Flow Analysis. Comparison of cash flows resulting from two or more investment or payment obligation alternatives by calculating the "present value" of each, using the same discount rate.
Economic Life Of Leased Property. The estimated period during which the property is expected to be economically useful by one or more users, with normal repair and maintenance, or the purpose intended at the inception of the lease.
End-Of-Term Options. Options stated in the lease agreement that give the lessee flexibility in its treatment of the leased asset at the end of the lease. Common end-of-term options include purchasing the asset, renewing the lease or returning the property to the lessor.
Estimated Residual Value. The forecasted "fair market value" of the leased asset, used for purposes of calculating the maximum allowable term of a tax-oriented lease. Calculated in constant dollars (excluding inflation and deflation).
Estimated Useful Life. The period, during which an asset is expected to be useful in a trade or business, used for calculation of the maximum allowable term of a tax-oriented lease.
Fair Market Value (FMV). The value of an asset if it were to be sold in an arms-length transaction, between a willing buyer and a willing seller. Fmv is determined by either agreement or appraisal.
Fair Market Value (FMV) Purchase Option. A lessee option to purchase the leased equipment at the end of the term from the lessor at fair market value.
FASB 13. Financial accounting standards board statement no. 13, "accounting for leases." FASB 13 contains specific guidelines for proper classification, accounting, and reporting of lease transactions.
Financing Statement. A notice of security interest filed under the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC).
Fixed Price Purchase Option. A lessee option to purchase the leased asset at the end of the leasing term at a predetermined price.
Fixed Rental Renewal Option. A lessee option to renew or extend the lease term at a fixed rental during the renewal period.
Guideline Lease. A tax-oriented lease, which complies with all the irs guidelines for a "true" lease.
Indemnity Clause. A clause in a master lease agreement that requires lessees to indemnify lessors against any and all claims, suits, actions, damages, liabilities, expenses, costs, including attorney fees, whether or not suit is instituted or incurred in connection with the equipment.
Lease Line. A lease line of credit that allows the lessee to add equipment without having to renegotiate a new lease each time.
Leveraged Lease. A specific lease involving at least three parties: a lessor, a lessee, and a funding source, which allows the lessor/owner to purchase the equipment by making a specific equity investment and to finance the remaining balance by issuing non-recourse note(s) to the lender(s).
MACRS (Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System). The current method of tax depreciation introduced by the tax reform act of 1986 and effective for equipment placed in service after 1986.
MACRS Deductions. Tax depreciation deductions calculated under the MACRS introduced by the tax reform act of 1986.
Master Lease. A lease agreement that allows a lessee to obtain additional equipment under the same basic lease terms and conditions as originally agreed, without having to renegotiate a new lease contract.
Municipal Lease. A conditional sales contract disguised in the form of a lease available only to state and local governments, in which the interest earnings are
Tax-exempt to the lessor.
Net Lease. A lease in which the lessee assumes all the costs and expenses related to use and maintenance of the leased asset.
Open-End Lease. A lease in which the lessee guarantees the amount of the future residual value to be realized by the lessor at the end of the term. If the equipment is sold for less than the guaranteed value, the lessee must pay the amount of any deficiency to the lessor. The lease is referred to as open-end because the lessee does not know its actual value until the equipment is sold at the end of the lease.
Operating Lease (Also Called Service Lease). A lease that has the characteristics of a usage agreement and also meets certain criteria established by the fasb. Such a lease is not required to be shown on the balance sheet of the lessee.
Purchase Option. A lessee option to purchase the leased asset from the lessor at the end of the lease term for either a fixed amount or at the future fair market value of it.
Put Option. A potential requirement to purchase equipment or other assets at a particular time and at a predetermined price. To exercise this option is at the lessors, not the lessees, discretion.
Quasi-Lease. A slang term for a non-tax oriented lease, also called a lease-purchase.
Stipulated Loss Value. A clause in the master lease that incorporates required lessee payments in the event of a default or casualty (loss or irreparable damage of the equipment) during the lease term.
Trac Lease. A tax-oriented lease of motor vehicles or trailers that contain a terminal rental adjustment clause and otherwise complies with the requirements of a guideline lease.
True Lease/Tax Lease. A tax-oriented lease, in which, for irs purposes, the lessor qualifies for the tax benefits of ownership and the lessee is allowed to claim the entire amount of the lease rental as a tax deduction.
Upgrade. An option that allows the lessee to add equipment to an existing piece of leased equipment in order to increase its capacity or improve its efficiency.
Vendor Lease. A lease offered by a manufacturer or dealer to its customers for financing its products.